The following discussions and articles focus on phsycis, astonomy, and cosmology.
Some of the ideas will be strange, others controversial.
Please let me know if you find any interesting of if you have any comments to share.

Intractable problems in contemporary physics
Why the universe isn't expanding (Why Hubble was wrong)
The Problem with Einstein
Time dilation in a Newtonian universe
Mpembe effect
Michelson-morley revisited
Einstien relativity and paradox (most hated and most verified theory)
Extra dimenstions (where are they?) - infinite in both directions
A four dimensional model of space
Gravity is not a radiated force (objects are not pulled together. they are pushed)
Electrostatics and four dimensional spin
Electromagnetism and why there are no magnetic monopoles
Early concepts of ether
Transverse waves and compression waves
Light is a four dimensional surface acoustic wave
Light is a gravity wave
Solitons and antigravity
Gravity wells and four dimensional surface phenomenon; more than an analogy
Dark matter to explain deviations in gravity
The sacred cow of orthodoxy
Ptolemaic complexity
Electron shells..why? close cubic packing in four dimenstions
Neil bohr magnetic quantum numbers and a four dimensional atom
- speed of light is not the same as speed of weak or strong nuclear force
- gravity does not follow inverse square law deep in gravity wells
- solitons can produce anti-gravity
- transuranic elements
Einstein is right but for the wrong reasons (not time dilation, but rather spacial elongation)


The Physics Blog

Intractable Problems in Contemporary Physics

There are many unanswered questions in modern physics, even witht he advances in technology , math, and computers over twentieth century. There are still a number of fundamental questions that elude us and new explanations and theories often have large holes in them.

The discussions here will touch on a number of these and sometimes suggest solutions, explanations or alternative interpretations of these phenomenon. We won't be able to answer all the tough questions out there, but even if we only found answers to one of two of them, it would be amazing.

Some of the problems we will touch upon include:

- Action at a distance

This is a particularly difficult one. While Issac Newton codified the laws of motion and established prinicple for mathematic and calculus that would eventually revolutionize phsycis and science, he had no answer to explain how objects far apart from one another interacted across great distances. Stumped at the mechanisms by which gravity functioned, he said "I feign no hypotheses".

Modern physics explains that gravity is a radiated force and eletromagnetic forces are a product of electrostatic charge and magnetic fields.

Current theories explain that there are particples call gravitons that cause objects to attract one another across space and the accepted mechanism of interaction in electromagnetic forces is the photon.

But we have never detected a graviton (despite many decaddes of searching) and how a radiated particple would facilitate interaction across space remains unexplained.

Moreover, even the attraction between a positively and negatively charged particle separated by empty space cannot be explained through the mechanism of photons. By definition, if all you have is one positively charged particle and one negatively charged particle, they exhibit an attraction to one another. There are no photons constantly zipping back and forth between them Again, by definition, there is NOTHING between them. yet they attract one another.

Gravity and electrostatics act across distances while the mechanism of how this is achieved remains a mystery.

- The missing graviton

Perhaps the most aggravating problem in physics is the missing particle that is supposed to explain how gravity works. Despite decades of searching and building increasingly exotic detectors, we have never been able to detect a graviton or a gravity wave.

Oh, we can explain and describe gravity in glorious detail. Measurements and theories (both netonian and Einsteinien) expain how gravity behaves. The mechamism by which two objects aree atracted to one another, howeve,r remains a mystery.

Even the concept of a graviton as a means of causing such interaction is difficult to fathom. For a single atom to interact with other atoms around it, gravitons would ahve to be constantly emitted by that atom. Indeed, gravitons would have to be radiated in sufficient quantity to eventually touch every other atom in the universe. And gravitons would ahve to be re-emitted over an over again every fempto-second (10 to the minus 15 seconds) to cause a continuous an uninterrupted attraction between our two separated aprticples. That's a lot of gravitons to be emitted by a single atom.

Additionally, the mechanism to explain how a graviton reaching another particle would result in a force of attraction (in the correct magnitude and direction) is also unexplained.

For several reasons, we made need to rethink this action-at-a-distance force.

If gravitons do exist, we should have bene able to detect them by now. Gravity was the first of the four fundamental forces to be studied and described mathematically and gravity it does manifest itself a lot in our daily lives. If gravitons did exist, surely they would have been detected by now. they fact that we haven't been able to detect one or isolate one is strong evidence that maybe they don't exist and some other explanation is needed.

- Missing dimensions

The discussions here will talk a lot about multiple dimensions. indeed, modern physics is rife with theories (such as Supersymmetry and String theory or teh Standard Model) that explain the fundamental forces of the universe use, not just the three dimensions we are familiar with, or even four dimensions, but as many as 11 or 16 dimensions (depending on the specific model or theory you are considering) What these other dimensions are and how they differ from the ones we know and experience is somewhat confusing.

The first question, of course, is "If there are other dimensions, why do we experience only three?"

The answers offered by those with endorsing these multidimensional models is that these other dimensions are rolled up very, very small. They are there, but so tiny that even the tiniest subatomic particle is larger than these other dimensions. Which is, really, just nonsense. Basically, it means, we don't know. The numbers look good on paper and math indicates that there are other dimensions, but we really don't understand why our universe seems limited to three dimensions. The others are basically missing and somehow we cannot reach them.

(Note: there are related discussions on multiple dimenstions and even a primer on mutidimensiional geometry in teh MATH BLOG on this web site, if you want to learn moreabout such things.)

- Why are there no magnetic monopoles?

- Yhe expanding universe

- Dark matter and dark energy

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Why the Universe isn't expanding

- action at a distance

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The Problem with Einstein

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Time dilation in a Newtonian universe

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Michelson-Morley revisited

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